‘hgang in dharamshala’ the film – now on Youtube!

5 08 2014

Director’s note.

Can you trek your way to Nirvana?

The above question is the result of an experience that we, as a lot, had during our trip to Dharamshala. Twelve friends, twelve entrepreneurs who set out for a petite get-together in this hilly town, returned as if they were reborn. And I am not exaggerating. It’s been almost 6 months since, and each one is showing a sustained attitudinal shift in their lives. What made this possible?

It all started with a letter we sent to His Holiness Dalai Lama’s office requesting a private audience with him. We shared the dilemmas bothering us and wished he sheds some light on it. Unfortunately(or fortunately!!) the meeting did not happen as HHDL was traveling during that period. But the fact of the matter is, we did get those answers without seeing HHDL; the events of the trip made us realize the answers to those dilemmas!!

The entire lot, each one of us, while returning, felt as if we were called to this place. We all believed,until this point, that the trip is our plan, but in the end we realized that we are all a part of a bigger plan.

This was felt in particular, at the trek of Triund. The trek that we took up just for kicks, made us sweat and battle like never before. With scarce resources as we ventured into the un-chartered, it took us to some mind-altering discoveries. Lasting for 9 hours, the trek tested our individual capacities and brought us face-to-face with values of togetherness and kinship along with courage and conviction. From being entrepreneurs fixated to the word ‘achievement’, we came back discovering a powerful agent called ‘letting go’.

As I came back home, I felt in me an uncontrollable desire to attempt to articulate this experience of ours in a visual medium. What I had with me were some thousand images and couple of hours of random video footage. I tried to put them all together in a manner that it makes some sense to the one who engages. I used voice over technique to narrate our mind state and have relied extensively on the songs to convey what we had felt. There is not much footage of the Triund trek which is of greater significance, but than that’s fine.

It may not make any sense to an unknown viewer, maybe. But anyone who knows this lot or any one from this lot, will definitely see some value in this effort. The discerning viewer will enjoy some breathtaking panoramic shots of the magnificent Dhauladhar range, taken right from the top of Triund.

Having said this I put forth the following disclaimer :
‘hgang in dharamshala’ is not a narrative film, nor it claims to be a document of a certain trip. It is a visual memoir of what we friends felt, experienced and realized during this 4 day period. To put it humbly it is just a home video, albeit with a difference.

The film is already shared with family and friends, but we have received lot of requests from many other friends, relatives and well-wishers who wished to engage themselves with this effort.

For them and for any one who ends up here, the film is made available on youtube. FYI the film is uploaded in two parts. Find below the links.

And yeah, watch it till the end the credits roll, it ends with an original poem recital by …

Yours truly,
Mihir Gajrwala





Dummies Guide to Guru Purnima.

12 07 2014

the immense gratitude that fills my heart, I cannot express it inspite of all my creative attempts, o teacher, accommodate me at your feet, and bestow me with your love filled devotion – krtagnata, verse 11, prayer on gratitude from chinmaya mission

I thought twice before giving the above title to this essay; putting the word ‘dummies’ along with ‘Guru Purnima’ which is linked with knowledge and learning, makes it an oxymoron of sorts. But than we all need to be guided, and hence I call this essay ‘Dummies Guide to Guru Purnima’.

Bhagvad says “You have got every right to do your sins, but you have got also a responsibility of coming out”.

The essay is an effort in ‘coming out’.

Guru Purnima is among the few ancient festivals celebrated across India. Now, the modern connotation of the term ‘festival’ is so clouded that it distances itself from the inherent meaning of the respective festival. Festival, this days equates with pomposity, over indulgence, wastefulness, consumerism etc. Apart from all that happened to our society over the last 500-800 years the worse that has happened is the loss of ‘mindfulness’. From being considered a vice, Indifference is now an accepted virtue.

Considering this I would describe Guru Purnima as an event and not a festival. To understand any phenomena one needs to understand the context, one needs to evaluate what happens before that event and what happens after that event. Over the course of next few pages, we shall try and understand this event through lenses of science, history and spirituality.

AxialTiltObliquity

winter solstice

summer solsticeThe first lesson of astronomy that we all know is that the earth’s axis of rotation is tilted. The seasons occur because the Earth’s axis of rotation is not perpendicular to its orbital plane. As a consequence, for half the year the Northern Hemisphere is inclined toward the Sun while for the other half year the Southern Hemisphere has this distinction. The two moments when the inclination of Earth’s rotational axis has maximum effect are the Solstices. Northern solstice is the moment when the sun reaches its highest position with reference to the North Pole. Similarly Southern Solstice is the moment when, the sun reaches its highest position with reference to the South pole.

After establishing a Solstice, we need to know the phenomena of Equinox. The moment when the sun crosses the celestial equator is called an Equinox. This happens twice in a year, at one point the sun would seem to be heading northward and at second time the sun would seem to be heading southward.

The two equinox and the two solstice have a strong bearing on the weather, climate and seasons on every point of earth. Northern solstice marks the end of summer at most places and southern solstice would be a winter period in the northern hemisphere. The northward equinox is when the spring occurs and southward equinox is when the autumn or fall occurs (in the northern hemisphere).

What I am trying to establish is the equation between the sun and the planet we reside on changes distinctly at this four points, and we being on this planet our equation with the cosmos changes too, bringing about certain qualitative changes in human physiology.

The below graphic will tell you when this four events occur during a year.
gp project_1In hindi Solstice means ‘Ayana’ and Equinox means ‘vishuv’. Summer Solstice is the moment after which the sun appears to be moving southwards hence in India we know this phase as ‘Dakshinayan’. For six months starting 14th of July it is the Dakshinayan Phase. Similarly six months from 14th January, the Winter Solstice are known as ‘Uttarayan’ in India. (As per Tropical Zodiac the two solstice occur on 21st of June and 21st of December respectively). Same are also known as Kark Sankranti and Makar Sankranti respectively. The points when Sun enters the Cancer position and Capricorn position are the two Sankranti’s.

Let me start by putting across some data to establish the science behind the existence of India’s traditional festivals. We have seen above that the relationship of earth and sun changes over the course of the formers revolution around the latter. Given this base most of our festivals are established, keeping in the mind the cosmic forces acting upon at that time. Agriculture is a simple example to understand this. Can seeds be sown out of its turn? Can land be ploughed at any time of the year? The answer to this, which we all know, is negative. In order to get a harvest ploughing and sowing has to happen at a particular time during the year, considering the seasons. Similarly Human being, who is a soul residing in the body made up of earthly elements can make most of the cosmic energy if certain things are done at certain time. It is a deep science.

In the figure below I have attempted to show various festivals and its relationship with astronomic situations along with reference to agriculture. if we divide the year in two halves, we shall see a pattern in the various Festivals that are traditionally celebrated in certain period. Lets have a look at this graphic.

gp project_2If you really see closely, the festivals that fall in the Dakshinayan are more rooted in sadhana and tapasya (focused on discipline and frugality). Most of the occasions to fast come during this period. From a health perspective due to monsoons and also sun being away, the metabolism of human body is at its lower degree as compared to the Uttarayan phase. From Agriculture point of view this is the time to plough and sow, basically time to prepare. And in the phase of preparation one should be more focused and disciplined, hence there aren’t many celebration occasions during this period. So the festivals are in coherence with these realities.

Now looking at the festivals that occur during the Uttarayan phase, they are more about celebration and sharing of joy. It is also the harvest period of the year, time to take yield. In modern terms also it is the end of Financial year, time to check your yield. Also the season of Spring, considered the most beautiful season occurs during this period. On the first day of Chaitra month one would find many festivals across cultures in the entire sub-continent. Geo-astronomically on this day, Sun is closest to earth, the following 21 days are supposed to be the hottest days of the year, time when earth recharges its batteries. So if you see each of the festival is in complete coherence with the cosmic arrangements. Any normal person celebrating these festivals in its true spirit is set to benefit.

The event of Guru Purnima occurs on the first Full Moon day after the Summer Solstice. This day, more than any other day of the year, the receptivity of every being on the planet is higher. The conditions are conducive for the one who is willing to outgrow.

The indifferent lot would argue with me, that ‘If I am prepared I do not need any such support’; my response is ‘a car would never run without the fuel, but the way it is maintained has a bearing on its functioning and its efficiency. Similarly a human needs to have the basic amount of energy to live his life, but if he is able to take care of himself by using this available science he would be better suited to achieve his goals.”

That’s about the science part. Let’s try and go beyond.

The above clearly establishes the strong scientific connect between the Hindu calendar and earths position in the cosmos. The traditional calendar takes into account the experience and impact happening on the human being due to difference of positions of celestial bodies around the earth. If we delve deeper we shall realize that the festivals are derivations so that a human body and mind can make the most of these celestial events for his or her well being and peace.

The first Full Moon Day of the month of Ashadha (June-July) is known as Guru Purnima.

This sacred day marks the very first transmission of the yogic sciences from Shiva – the Adiyogi or the First Yogi – to the Saptarishis, the seven celebrated sages. This momentous occasion took place on the banks of the lake Kantisarovar, which stands a few kilometers above the Kedarnath Temple in the Himalayas. Thus, the Adiyogi became the Adi Guru or the First Guru on this day. The Saptarishis carried this knowing offered by Adiyogi throughout the world. Even today, every spiritual process on the planet draws from the spine of knowing created by Adiyogi. It is said that the Saptarishis followed extreme ascetism and penance (tapasya) for 84 long years before the grace of Adiyogi fell upon them.

The followers of Jain tenet believe the Adi yogi to be Adinath, the first Tirthankara or the ford-maker of current time epoch. His place of sadhana is known as Ashtapada, a region located in the Himalayas. Legends say that Adinath invented the science of agriculture and in his kingdom the very first experiment of farming took place, in the form of sugarcane crop. Even today the region of Hastinapur (Western UP) is known for Sugarcane cultivation.

What does this piece of history tells us – it tells us the beginning of Knowing. It marks the moment on this planet when the instance of ‘transfer of knowledge’ took place for the first time. Today the beings on this planet have evolved and developed various tools of storage and dissemination of knowledge, and the world measures its progress in its ability to share, which is not limited to time and space. Thus more than any other ‘day’ that we celebrate, this day, this occasion of Guru Purnima should be celebrated.

Now, if we go back to the advent of seasons we would come to know that this period, after the Summer Solstice (Kark Sankranti) is when the fields are ploughed. Farmers across geography, with minor time variations, would start into the process of readying their farmlands so that seeds can be sowed at the right time. Else there would be no harvest. Going by this same mechanics, the body along with its intellect, which is nothing but a piece of earth, has to be ploughed during this period. The six months until the winter solstice, are to be dedicated to ‘sadhana’ (disciplined and dedicated practice) in order to evolve out of one’s transgression and limitation.

“This day, the day of Guru Purnima, the first full moon day after the solstice is a time when this planet and all life upon it are most receptive to the cosmic energy and possibilities. The next six months till the winter solstice is the best time to strive for evolving and experiencing the divine possibility that is innate in a human being “ ~ Sadhguru

The day should be celebrated as an event to set goals, and prepare oneself for higher learning’s. The day is an opportunity whereby one is able to do the ‘preparations’ better due to the existent celestial positions of that day.

There were times when holidays from work were worked around this available science; for reasons best known to each one of us, now we do not keep holidays on such important occasions and let the opportunity slip by. Imagine a farmer letting go the opportunity to plough and sow before the rains, would there be anything for him to harvest then??

If we look into various religious traditions, lot of festivals focusing on austerity and sadhana fall during this period. Hindus have their ‘Shravan’ month (July-augsut) for month long austerity. Jains all over maintain extreme austerity during the four months starting from this day. The festival of sacrifice ‘paryushana’ also falls during this period. We have looked into this point in detail above.

In Sanskrit “Guru” means “dispeller of darkness”. A guru is the one who dispels the darkness of ignorance and leads the aspirants to the path of enlightenment. “If you are willing, you can transcend all your limitations and evolve to a higher realm” ~ an aspirant who chooses to do this sadhana would want to start of by showing his surrender and gratitude for the route, through which he can reach knowledge – that route is a Guru. This day of Guru Purnima is the day to do this.

Thus, 1 – the appropriateness of the day to prepare oneself for learning and 2 – obeisance for the ‘guru’ , this two put together is the essence of the event called Guru Purnima.

Having said all of the above, I never required this essay to believe in the above. A decade back, almost around the winter solstice, while I was going through an emotional turmoil, dejected and depressed by some occurrences around me, my teacher, my Guru said to me “Mihir, this are petty happenings. After a period in time, you will realize the insignificance of these events which you are considering the core of your identity. Believe me, you are made for higher achievements, and you should start moving ahead.” These words are the spine of my self-belief, and made me realize at a very young age, that if armed with belief, guided by a ‘guru’ and fuelled by willingness – even a lesser mortal like me can transform. Not that I have proven my worth to my teacher, but my belief in my potential to transform remains undeterred. Given this background –  obeisance for the ‘guru’ come naturally to me, and this obeisance has further broken down my indifference, leading me to believe in the appropriateness of the day of Guru Purnima.

This brings us to the point where one would ask me, “Ok, we got it, so what should we be doing on this day?” I would suggest, take some time from your schedule, and spend that time out in the nature. Take a walk, sit back in a park, watch the butterflies, listen to soothing music, and just relax. And if possible meditate while the full moon shines upon you.

May we all be blessed by the grace of the Guru!

Shubh Guru Purnima !

 

with inputs from Isha Blog. Image courtesy : Wikipedia





Krishnaverse #2

29 05 2014

Student : Sir, I understand the attitude of ‘giving more’ or ‘keep doing the new’ or ‘keep contributing’, whatever way we may put it. And to an extent these attitudes does open up various faculties of an individual’s persona and help him expand. But I feel, the flip side of this attitude is, sometime, even after doing a lot, if it has not transformed into economies or if the given activity has not yielded any tangible uplift than, one feels frustrated. For example a young dynamic chap who is jumpy in his career direction, may find himself nowhere in spite of putting in years of work experience and in spite of dozens of so called ‘contributing’ efforts. At such a point one feels a loss of direction; one feels ones heading nowhere and so stays dissatisfied?

Sir : Not necessarily! Not necessary that one would become dissatisfied.
What could happen with positively inclined people is – in given settings just see what best you can create, or offer. Sometimes, what happens in industrial lines, or in certain types of actions, that we think we are good at; and therefore we want to be in that only and consider that as direction or focus. But it doesn’t have to be that ways. Responding to the given environment with the potential we are, is important, more important. And that might sometimes deprive us from those lines of expertise or direction. The so called directed movement sometimes you may have to fore go, you might be denied those things because in the given environment those things may not have any place.

Suppose you are a good painter and in given environment there is no scope for expressing your painting skill, but still you are a potential. Can u respond to that environment where there is no scope for painting, painting as we understand? Well, it cud be a simple talk on the surrealist trends, painting can also be talked out, or a painting could simply be lived. It doesn’t have to be necessarily and every time an expression that is known to us only. We know the expression of painting in a certain form, and that only doesn’t have to be a manifestation of our talent. It could be in other ways, sometimes even in ways which we cannot imagine right now. That’s where innovation takes place, that’s where new things come up, creation comes up, that’s how world goes ahead. Whatever technological manifestation we see these days you wouldn’t have imagined that a couple of centuries ago, but than how did it all came into being? That is what the ‘non-wastage’ of potential I am referring to.

Secondly, dissatisfaction with the way we are living and the way we have lived in past so many years or so many seasons, is fine. This is what our restlessness is- You got to be restless about status quo so that you will create new things. Only if you are restless about the status quo about the given things you will be able to create something new, isn’t it?
So to that extent restlessness, yes, it is required. It is at the core of innovation, at the core of creativity. But if restlessness is because of dissatisfaction then it is a tricky issue.

“We are restless not because we are dissatisfied; we are restless because though we are satisfied, at that point of time the potential is not being used. We are satisfied, so we are restless not because of the dissatisfaction or otherwise, we are restless because the potential is lying idle, it’s not being put to use and that’s why we are restless. I can do something more…I can chew a little more….and therefore I do not consider these two as synonyms, dissatisfaction and restlessness.”

Understand the secret of success is satisfaction. You got to be satisfied if you want to take a successful step forward, dissatisfaction would not lead us there. I wouldn’t confuse our thought process by putting them as synonyms. You might have to look at it that way.





I wish to die, now – Video brief

3 05 2014

As mentioned in an earlier blog, as a new author, I need to be sensitive about my readers doubt. And I need to address the barriers that might prevent a mindful individual to engage with my writing.

With this thought a careful campaign is being gradually put in place to generate greater engagement.

This video is a brief about what the book “I wish to die, now”, is and what a reader can expect from it.

As an expressionist this is my maiden attempt to engage with readers from various cultures and societies. The campaign is an attempt to bridge that gap so that a sustained connection can be made at higher cognitive level.

Here it is – the video brief on “I wish to die, now”.

Happy exploring !

Mihir





Krishnaverse #1

29 04 2014

Student :  Sir, I get varied responses to my decision of moving to this new job which for some is not as healthy as the one I left. For me, may be coming to this city (ahmedabad) was of some social value, and at the back of mind I do harbor the urge to be independent. Quite a few of such factors led me to this decision. And I am fine if I am not comfortable for a while, its ok. But then these various views leave me perplexed.

Sir : Not falling prey to comfort zone dreams is a good thing, and I fully agree there…but then one doesn’t have to be on the extreme side either; a fine balance is what is required. See it’s not about our safety or safety nets that matter, what matters is at no point in time our potential to contribute should go wasted, whether it gets translated in economies or not, what is important is that wastage has to be controlled. Because a wastage now is a wastage forever, you see. that’s the danger. So we have to be a little careful about that. Every day the contribution has to get recorded. If we work in that spirit, its fine. Whether you are stationary or jumpy, it may not make any great difference; so long that you are contributing and not sitting idle.
That’s the kind of thing we can do…this is a ‘karma- bhumi’ this place, all said n done we should hold to it; we should give, every day we should give – that’s how we can shape up the world in our own small bit. You contribute, plan it that way.
When I heard you are being a bit jumpy it appears a bit risky, but then you are not sitting idle, you are doing your best . So that’s fine. No need to remain perplexed.





Krishnaverse.

29 04 2014

Most of ancient Indian knowledge is written in the form of ‘verse’ known as ‘shloka’ or ‘sutra’. A sutra is like a seed, from which thoughts would emerge. A Universe is the term used to define ‘all that exists’. ‘Krishna’ – the hindu god who gave profound wisdom to his devotee and relative ‘Arjuna’, said it all in the form of verses, which is celebrated all across the world as the ‘Gita’ (song of god); this happened while the world was at the cusp of a mythical time zone.

For me and hundreds of students all of this comes through our teacher Dr. KVSM Krishna. Since classroom days to real life situations filled with dilemmas, he is a teacher who is always around to make us learn the ability to take our own decisions. Over a decade and a half a lot of us students would have interacted with him and many who continue to do so, have learn a lot  from these conversations. These conversations contain a lot of meaning for everyone who is a student of this University called Life.

A few of those conversations that happened with me, a few with someone else, but were shared with me, I am attempting to bring them here in the form of question and answers, for every student to learn and enrich himself/herself.

This i would like to term as ‘Krishnaverse’.

The next blog will be a first in this series.

 

My earlier writings on Dr. Krishna can be found here :

http://mihirgajrawala.com/2009/05/10/a-teacher-as-is-see/

http://mihirgajrawala.com/category/my-musings/dr-krishna/

Note : My faculty of memory and comprehension is extremely limited in comparison to the quantum of wisdom Dr. Krishna would have shared. The writings I present will be contained by this limitation. I request every reader to consider this as my interpretation of a conversation and not a verbose representation of what he would have said or meant. I apologize for any wrong comprehension that I might end up doing in this process. My intention is to share with many, what some of us have learn from him.

I also invite other students to share the conversations they had with Dr. Krishna over this years. I will be happy to articulate them to the best of my abilities.

 





Shifting Paradigms of Entrepreneurship Strategy.

26 04 2014

Shifting Paradigms of Entrepreneurship Strategy
(in a new world order driven by the rise of New Media)

© mihir gajrawala
Published on http://www.mihirgajrawala.com on 26.4.14

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

New Media : a phenomenon created due to the advent of social media converging with the tremendous spread of mobile technology. The key features (at this point in time), being on-demand access to data, inherent interactive feedback capability and community formation potential.

It has been an age old dictum in our business tradition – ‘it takes 1000 days for an enterprise to set up, after which one may think of driving it to above average profits’.

Does this still hold true? Try this…
It took Instagram 730 days to turn itself into an enterprise valued at a humongous $1bn, around ` 5500 crores. Around 24 months back, Facebook came up with an IPO having valuation at a staggering $100 bn; the point is it took the company less than 3000 days to reach here. This social media behemoth went on to acquire a 5 year old start up – Whatsapp-for an unbelievable sum of $19billion dollars. These are not the only events. Let’s take an Indian example. Cisco Systems, the technology behemoth took a 17% stake in a lesser known start up, Qyuki – founded by Shekar Kapur and AR Rahman, at a great pricing of `27 crores. And this was even before the beta version launch.

Just look around in the spectrum of New Media and the concept of time value of money seems to be going through a fundamental change. And if we delve deeper it seems the global consumer behavior is changing dramatically leading to sweeping transformations in the contemporary business environment. Every paradigm that we know is changing, already.

So what are the fresh paradigms shaping up?

Let’s go back in time to put our discussion in a better context.

Powered by the discovery of electricity, entrepreneur/scientists worked on it and some life changing inventions took place during the late 18th till late 19th century. These phenomena carried on in the entire 20th century leading to the invention of computer followed by the Internet. The world has changed. The skill sets existing a century before are not even known now. Who would use Human or bird messengers for communication, you had telegraph and later email. Who would have even imagined that the skill set of making earthen vessels would become redundant before steel and other metals came into being? But nothing could stop human imagination, and with it the world order went through change.

The prime driver of this change was the human craving for ‘convenience’. In today’s scenario, ‘convenience’ & ‘ease’ are being taken over by a totally new set of values, which is – the human craving to express, to share and eventually to INFLUENCE. The change occurring today is potentially far more impactful than what the world has ever seen earlier.

And we are all part of this change. We have changed. Our motives to do ‘something’ are going through a sea change. And the reason I am quoting this change to be more powerful is the speed at which it is occurring. What earlier took centuries to occur, now may just happen in decades or even years.
You don’t take pictures to make an album to show to your kids, you take them to instantly share it with your community. You do not wait for a weekly film review, but you are plugged into the first show tweet review. You do not have to wait for tomorrow’s newspaper to tell you what your favorite sportsman did on his birthday; he would have already shared it with his followers on Twitter. You do not need to have ‘contacts’ to let a film maker notice your story, you connect with an expert on Qyuki. Before we even leveraged ‘networking’, the concept of ‘community’ is taking over. While as a nation, we still haven’t ended bloating about ‘outsourcing’; the early signs and power of ‘crowd sourcing’ is out to behold!

Creative individuals from across the world come together to develop new art or commercial offerings; a phenomenon unthinkable just a few years ago. Entrepreneurs have now an option of crowd funding at their disposal, and thousands of new start ups are coming up just because of the availability of such unique funding. These phenomena are huge, considering they are bringing about a sea change in the existing understanding of the idea of ‘ownership’.

We would be blind if we are not seeing this. The new paradigms have already emerged in the world of Entrepreneurship strategy. And we all know that business has to follow where the ‘community’ is heading.

Let me list down what’s happening:
• Job creation as the prime motivator of entrepreneurship is taken over by ‘potential to co-create’
• The demise of stand-alone firm as the primary unit of competition; linear hierarchic firm structures are giving way to multi polar, decentralized structures – where the skill, power and control is spread widely across individual firms/individuals.
• The demise of nation-state as the principal unit around which international economic activity is organized and conducted.
• The focus of business is shifting from ‘the firm’ to ‘the community’

Based on all of these the over arching trend in front of us is :
‘Shifting focus from consumption economy to influence economy’

As entrepreneurs we cannot over look this trend. Every aspect of enterprise creation is changing in a phenomenal way. We will need to develop ways to identify community based opportunities for developing capabilities and acquiring the specialized resources needed to compete in today’s fluidic market place, and we need to understand our own strategic value in the context of shifting focus from Investment management to Access management.

Driven by need of convenience we created a consumption based economic model and ended up given control and power to Investment houses. This may soon become obsolete. Driven by the desire to ‘express’, an Influence based economic model is emerging leading to hand over control and power to those with ‘Access’.

Do you wish to wait till suddenly you realize that no one uses earthen pots any more? As evolving entrepreneurs we have to understand the essence of this emerging paradigm and generate keys to long term entrepreneurial existence.

 

Inputs taken from :
1) Shekhar Kapur’s Speech at NASSCOM India Leadership forum 2013
2) “Changing Paradigms of International Entrepreneurship Strategy” Paper published by Richard W. Wright & Leo-Paul Dana in the Journal of International Entrepreneurship in 2003.








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